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Differences in Intelligence and Socio-Economic Outcomes across the Twenty Seven States of Brazil

Richard Lynn, Mayra Antonelli-Ponti, Rodrigo Focosi Mazzei, José Aparecido Da Silva and Gerhard Meisenberg


In a number of countries, earlier studies have reported significant associations between regional differences in intelligence within countries and economic and social phenomena. Using scores on the Program of International Student Assessment (PISA) tests as indicator of intelligence, we find statistically significant correlations for the 27 states of Brazil between intelligence and nine indicators of socio-economic development. Spatial analysis indicates that relationships are present both at the level of differences between adjacent states and over long-distance clines. Most of the relationships observed after initial analysis persisted after controlling for spatial autocorrelation. Among the socio-economic variables, those that describe the standard of living of the less affluent sections of the population tend to correlate most with PISA scores.

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